Selasa, 08 November 2016

VARIABEL

KEPRIBADIAN

Pengaruh yang diberikan oleh beberapa karakteristik pribadi yang stabil akan memastikan individu memiliki sikap kerja yang berbeda.

Kepribadian proaktif didefinisikan sebagai sebuah disposisi dalam mengambil inisiatif pribadi
untuk mempengaruhi lingkungan seseorang (Crant, 2000). Variabel kepribadian proaktif dapat dipertimbangkan sebagai variabel yang berpengaruh terhadap keterlibatan kerja berdasarkan asumsi bahwa kepribadian proaktif menyiratkan kesediaan untuk terlibat dan mengambil inisiatif untuk mengidentifikasi dan memberikan kontribusi pada berbagai kegiatan dan situasi. Oleh karena itu kepribadian proaktif sebagai salah satu karakteristik positif dari individu dianggap dapat berpengaruh terhadap keterlibatan kerja karyawan.

Karena diyakini bahwa kepribadian seseorang sangat mempengaruhi politik organisasi. Menurut temuan Robbin (2005) pada tingkatan individu, kepribadian berkaitan dengan erat dengan perilaku individu dalam organisasi yang menjelaskan pada karakter utama serta sebagai pemantau diri sendiri yang tinggi, memiliki tempat kedudukan kendali internal dan memiliki suatu kebutuhan yang tinggi akan kekuasaan dan lebih besar untuk melakukan perilaku politik (Bilberman, 1985 dalam Robin, 2005). Sementara karakter kepribadian yang stabil dapat bertahan dan mudah mempengaruhi orang untuk berperilaku secara konsisten dalam situasi yang berbeda (Greeberg & Baron, 2000). Bateman dan Crant ,1993); Nilawati, 2004 dalam Muafi, 2005) menjelaskan bahwa bentuk dasar kepribadian proaktif sebagai seseorang yang relatif tidak didesak oleh kekuatan situasional dan seseorang yang mempengaruhi dan menciptakan perubahan lingkungan. Lebih lanjut mereka juga menyatakan bahwa perbedaan individu cenderung digunakan untuk mengaruhi lingkungan mereka. Ketika seseorang melakukan tindakan untuk mempengaruhi orang lain, apakah berhasil atau tidak, maka individu tersebut telah menggunakan pengaruh sosial pada orang lain. Dari pemahaman itu dapat diasumsikan bahwa individu yang memiliki kepribadian proaktif, maka akan memiliki kesempatan dan tindakan untuk memperkenalkan atau menunjukkan diri mereka sendiri, seperti inisiatif, mengambil tindakan, atau bertindak cepat, menentang status quo dan gigih bekerja keras ketika mereka mengadakan sebuah perubahan yang berarti.

Kepribadian atau karakter seringkali merupakan gagasan pengoperasian perilaku melalui pengaruh perilaku pada keaadaan internal. Meskipun kepribadian misalnya positif affective mempengaruhi keadaan internal yang relevan, keadaan juga ditentukan oleh faktor situasional dan interaksinya dengan kepribadian. Keadaan dapat berubah dan berfluktuasi sepanjang masa dan situasi yang berbeda, sementara karakter berlangsung sepanjang waktu.

Beberapa peneliti menyarankan bahwa, kepribadian kemungkinan berinteraksi dengan kemampuan untuk memprediksi perilaku kerja atau kinerja (George, 1992 dalam nilawati, 2004). Bateman dan Crant ( dalam Nilawati, 2004) yang meneliti hubungan antara skala kepribadia proaktif dengan big five dan tiga karakter kepribadian. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa skala kepribadian proaktif berhubungan dengan dua variabel five (conscientiousness dan extraversion) dan kebutuhan dan kekuasaan.
Struktur kepribadian berdasarkan sifat dapat dilihat antara lain dengan menggunakan kepribadian lima besar (the big five personality) yang dikembangkan oleh Costa dan McCrae (Costa & McCrae, 1992; McCrae, et al., 1998).

Kelima sifat-kepribadian tersebut adalah neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness dan conscientiousness.

Penjelasan masing-masing faktor sifat tersebut adalah sebagai berikut:
1)    Neuroticism adalah sifat pencemas, mudah depresi, pemarah, mudah takut, tegang, rawan kritik, serta emosional dan merupakan sifat negatif;
2)    Extraversion adalah sifat mudah bergaul, banyak bicara, aktif, asertif, suka berteman, dan suka bergembira;
3)     Openness to experience berisikan sifat imajinatif, kreatif, ingin tahu, memiliki pemikiran bebas dan orisinil, menyukai variasi, sensitif terhadap seni;
4)    Agreeableness merupakan sifat ramah, lembut hati, percaya pada orang lain, murah hati, setuju pada pendapat orang lain, penuh toleransi dan baik hati;
5)     Conscientiousness, merupakan sifat bersungguhsungguh, bertanggungjawab, tekun, teratur, tepat waktu, ambisius, mau bekerja keras, dan berorientasi pada keberhasilan.


Hasil penelitian yang menunjukkan kaitan
1)    Openness to experience berkaitan dengan kreativitas ilmiah dan artistik (Feist, 1998), berpikir divergen, dan memiliki pandangan politik yang lebih moderat (Judge, Heller & Mount, 2002; McCrae, 1996);
2)    Conscientiousness berkaitan dengan perilaku disiplin diri yang kuat dan berhati-hati (Erdheim, Wang & Zicker, 2006);
3)    Extraversion menunjukkan tendensi menghabiskan lebih banyak waktu dalam situasi sosial dan mengekspresikan emosi positif (Judge, Heller & Mount, 2002);
4)    Agreeableness menunjukkan sifat penolong dan pemaaf (Barrick & Mount, 1991);
5)    Neuroticism cenderung emosional dan merasa tak aman (Barrick & Mount, 1991).

Individu yang memiliki extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, dan conscientiousness yang tinggi dan neuroticism yang rendah akan memiliki kelekatan terhadap pekerjaannya sebagai guru sekaligus memiliki komitmen organisasi yang tinggi.

Individu dengan sifat extraversion tinggi memiliki komitmen organisasi afektif yang kuat karena memiliki emosi yang positif sehingga bereaksi positif terhadap sekolah;

Individu dengan sifat openness to experience berkorelasi negatif dengan komitmen normatif sebab pemikirannya yang bebas dan menginginkan variasi menyebabkannya kurang menghargai sesuatu yang sangat bernilai bagi banyak orang misalnya ganjaran (reward) formal maupun informal yang lazim diterapkan agar karyawan memiliki ikatan pada organisasi. Individu dengan sifat kepribadian semacam ini umumnya tak memiliki tanggung jawab atau beban moral untuk bertahan dalam organisasi (McCrae, 1996);

Sifat conscientiousness akan mendorongnya memiliki komitmen berkesinambungan yang kuat sebab, menurut Organ dan Lingl (1995), individu yang memiliki disiplin diri yang tinggi, bersungguh-sungguh dan bertanggung jawab akan menghargai apa yang diberikan organisasi sehingga semakin terlibat dalam pekerjaannya;

Individu dengan sifat agreeableness cenderung memiliki komitmen normatif sebab sifatnya yang lembut hati, percaya kepada pihak lain, pemaaf, penuh toleransi dan baik hati, menurut Erdheim, Wang dan Zicker (2006) mendorongnya membalas kebaikan organisasi yang menyediakan baginya dukungan dan lingkungan yang kondusif;

sifat Neuroticism akan mendorongnya memiliki komitmen berkesinambungan sebab, menurut Watson dan Clark (1984), serta Erdheim, Wang dan Zicker (2006), individu tersebut memiliki kecenderungan mengalami afek negative lebih besar sehingga kuatir tentang beban dan besar pengorbanannya jka harus meninggalkan organisasi dan menghadapi situasi baru dalam lingkungan pekerjaan yang baru.




DUKUNGAN ORGANISASI

Peneliti menganggap faktor ini perlu diteliti sebab dalam bekerja individu pasti mengharapkan ganjaran, penilaian yang sepantasnya terhadap usaha-usaha yang dilakukannya dan perhatian dari organisasi mengenai kesejahteraan dan kebutuhannya.

Bentuk dukungan organisasi yang dijadikan indikator dalam menilai POS ini adalah
1)    Keadilan (fairness),
2)    Dukungan dari atasan (support),
3)    Imbalan dari organisasi (organizational rewards) dan
4)    kondisi pekerjaan (job condition) (Essenberger et al., 1986).

Dukungan ini akan mempengaruhi komitmen individu terhadap organisasi.

Alasan yang logis sebagai penjelasan terhadap keterkaitan POS dengan komitmen organisasi antara
lain bahwa POS mendorong respon positif dari karyawan terhadap organisasi sebab POS memberdayakan secara psikologis yakni mendorong keyakinan diri dan kepercayan diri pekerja sehingga mampu menjalankan tugas-tugas dengan baik (Ali, et al., 2010)

Lebih jauh, Eder dan Eisenberger menyatakan bahwa sekalipun kelompok memiliki dorongan menarik diri yang kuat, individu sangat mungkin tidak ikut menarik diri jika mendapatkan POS yang cukup. Eisenberger, Fasolo dan Davis-LaMastro (1990) menyimpulkan dampak POS dalam organisasi lainnya yakni inovasi dalam organisasi, kehadiran kerja, kesediaan membantu organisasi, dan komitmen afektif.




KOMITMEN ORGANISASI

Hal yang umum dari ketiga komponen komitmen ini adalah dilihatnya komitmen sebagai kondisi psikologis yang:
(1) menggambarkan hubungan individu dengan organisasi, dan
(2) mempunyai implikasi dalam keputusan untuk meneruskan atau tidak keanggotaannya dalam organisasi (Allen & Meyer, 1991).

Karyawan yang mempunyai komitmen afektif yang kuat akan melanjutkan pekerjaannya dalam organisasi karena setuju dengan tujuan organisasi tersebut dan adanya keinginan untuk melakukan hal tersebut (want to do so),
Karyawan yang mempunyai komitmen berkesinambungan yang tinggi yang tetap bekerja dalam organisasi karena ia menganggap rugi bila meninggalkan organisasi dan karena adanya kebutuhan untuk melakukan hal tersebut (need to do so).
Karyawan yang memiliki komitmen normatif akan tetap bekerja dalam organisasi karena adanya nilai-nilai dan norma-norma yang telah terinternalisasi dalam dirinya, yang mengharuskannya melakukan hal tersebut (ought to do so) (Allen & Meyer, 1990).

Sifat kepribadian memiliki pengaruh yang lebih stabil dan bertahan terhadap komitmen organisasi karena sifat kepribadian adalah sesuatu yang melekat pada diri dosen dan lebih sulit diubah. Adanya pengaruh sifat kepribadian terhadap komitmen organisasi pada dosen juga sesuai dengan pernyataan Caldwell dan O’Reily (1990) bahwa semakin sesuai sifat-kepribadian seseorang dengan tuntutan pekerjaan (the person-job fit) maka makin baik unjuk kerja dan sikap yang berhubungan dengan pekerjaannya.




Rabu, 02 November 2016

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

DAFTAR PUSTAKA



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